History EditThe Parcas were a South America Indian Tribe, located in the Ica Region of Peru. Discovered by Julio Tello, he discovered a Paracas grave site in the Paracas Peninsula. The Paracas Cavernas are shaft tombs set into the top of Cerro Colorado, each containing multiple burials. There is evidence that these tombs were reused over centuries. In some cases, the heads of the deceased were taken out, apparently for rituals, and later reburied. The associated ceramics include incised polychrome, "negative" resist decoration and other wares of the Paracas tradition. The associated textiles include many complex weave structures as well as elaborate plaiting and knotting techniques. It was found on 25 October 1927, Julio and his team found hundreds of ceremonial wrapped mummies. They were found sitting in baskets, each one covered by woven cotten that was embroidered with wool. The necropolis of Wari Kayan consisted of two clusters of hundreds of burials set closely together inside and around abandoned buildings on the steep north slope of Cerro Colorado. The associated ceramics are very fine plain wares, some with white and red slips and other with pattern-burnished decoration, and other wares of the Topara tradition. Each burial consisted of a conical textile-wrapped bundle, most containing a seated individual facing north across the bay of Paracas, next to offerings such as ceramics, foodstuffs, baskets and weapons. Each body was bound with cord to hold it in a seated position, before being wrapped in many layers of intricate, ornate, and finely woven textiles. By the end of his excavations he had found 429 mummies and 394 textiles.
The Paracas Necropolis embroideries are now known as some of the finest ever produced by Pre-Colombian Andean societies, and are the primary works of art by which Paracas is known. Burials at the necropolis of Wari Kayan continued until about 250 CE, and many of the mortuary bundles include textiles like those of early Nazca. They were excavated from the sites north side. He focused on the semi-circular bay found there. Adjacent to the grave site was the Paracas "city" at Cerro Colorado. At Cerro Colorado Julio found some elongated skulls scattered amongst the ruins. After studying the skulls Julio estimated their age at 3000 years. But tools found were as old as 8000 years old.
It was theorized that the tribe existed between 1200 BCE - 100 BCE, the Paracas developed the region. They had extensive knowledge of water management and textiles. As a matter of fact, they even made significant contribution to the textile arts in the area. Most of these textiles were found at the Peninsula. There was a subterranean houses found that ran for approximately 2 km. Some textiles have been found at the Pacific lowlands all the way to the eastern mountain pastures. But most only survived at the Peninsula unfortunately. It's theorized that the Pazca were absorbed by an "Invading" tribe from the north. Which could have possibly been the Nazca. This happened
around 150 BCE, both tribes co-existed for some generations. Eventually spreading from the Paracas Peninsula into the Inca Valley. It's thought that the tribe influenced the Nazca Some even speculate they were the ones responsible for the Nazca lines.
Julio Tello even theorized they were related to the Chavin culture. As both share the same pottery designs, including feline figures. But upon searching Chavin sites, which lies north of Lima; found in the Ancash District. But no skulls found in that area at that time. Some elongated skulls were found in excavation sites in Cahuachi. In 1928 Julio began removing certain artifacts for safekeeping. With the exception of Julio's excavations nothing more has truly been found.
Influences EditIt was said in 1896: The History of Mankind by Friedich Ratzel reported that "many tribes in Tahiti, Samoa, Hawaii, and the Panmotu group. It also occurred frequently on Mallicollo in New Hebrides (Malakula and Vanuatu)"; but there skulls were squeezed flat. Cranial Manipulation was also found amongst the Maya, Inca and certain N. American tribes. There was a Native American group called flatheads. The Salishan did not flatten their skulls, but actually modified it to a rounder shape. The Cahuachi achieved this by placing an infants head between a cushion and board attached to the back of the head. It's not sure if this was done to show social status. As some of the skulls found were not elongated. The Nazca did practice cranial manipulation, but perhaps they were trying to emulating the Paracas. It could be these tribes influenced each other in various ways as trade spread to other South American tribes.
Some believed the cause of the elongation was caused by Hydrocephalus. As the remains of mummified women were found pregnant. Their infants were found to have elongated skulls. But Hydrocephalus only causes the skull to swell and become round, not elongate. So perhaps the Paracas were naturally born in this way. 7 of the 90 skulls had larger cranial volume; some even up 2.5 times larger than normal.
Some have claimed that skulls are non-human and in fact extraterrestrial in nature. Brien Foerster, the director of the Paracas History Museum, claims the skulls' DNA is categorically not human. Sending 5 mitochondrial DNA samples to the late Lloyd Pye, founder of the Starchild Project, who delivered the samples to "anonymous" geneticist in Texas for DNA testing. The geneticist claimed "The Paracas skulls are so different from humans' they would not be able to interbreed, I am not sure it will even fit into the known evolutionary tree."
Of course this research was in no way linked to any academic institution (other than the Paracas History Museum) or peer-reviewed scientific group. Therefore the only two logical outcomes are these:
Mishandled research/ degraded DNA Edit
Foerster has not produced all the research data to the scientific community. He also presented the initial findings in an unprofessional way (via Facebook, websites and an Internet radio interview). When asked about general scientific study he only said, "Peer review will of course be considered, but this information belongs to THE WORLD, not a few academics…" Perhaps the DNA was degraded beyond the scope of his geneticists tools. Which would produce a reading of non-human. The interpretation of the genetic information so far released is said to rest on “sketchy” data.
Cranial Manipulation was commonplace Edit
As presented above many American tribes practiced this tradition. Archaeologist Keith Fitzpatrick-Matthews had this to say : "There is nothing at all unusual about the population of the Paracas Necropolis Culture, apart from the extreme nature of the head-binding they practised. DNA or no DNA, they are fully human: every aspect of their skulls can be explained in terms of genetics (such as the large wormian bone) and culture (such as the cranial deformation)."
Proof of Extraterrestrials Edit
1. Not probable; The Paracas Culture is human and practiced Cranial Deformation.
- Paracas culture From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- Nazca culture From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- Julio C. Tello From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- Paracas National Reserve From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- Artificial cranial deformation From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- Bad Archaeology by Keith Fitzpatrick-Matthews (15 February 2014)